BIM Dimension-3D, 4D, 5D, 6D, and 7D explained

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a well-organised process using structured digital information to deliver designs and operate the project. BIM is starting to become the foundation of AEC- Architecture, Engineering, construction industry. Each makes use of the advantages BIM provides for their unique defined purposes. For instance, a well-planned project on BIM helps estimate the building material required more accurately which further reduces the wastage of essential resources and time. BIM supports every aspect of the construction process from designing to execution which proper involvement of all stakeholders.

Each defined purpose is categorised as BIM dimensions. The technology has transformed from being just 3D to 4D, 5D, 6D, and 7D. These dimensions are useful to find out the project cost, timeline and sustainability. 

2D Dimension

The most basic plan of exploration- is the X-axis and Y-axis planes. This model can be hand-made but is usually drafted on computer-aided-drawing software. Technology has transcended from this to other directions to provide a better edge and efficiency. 

3D Dimension

The next most familiar dimension any designer has dealt with is the 3 dimensions Geometric plane which includes X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis. BIM design in 3D helps better visualization of a project with schematic drawings, construction drawings and documentation of the project. This medium is more effective communication of information to the clients and the workers. It provides the complete picture of the project contrary to the flat 2D drawing. 

4D Dimension

The lesser Known dimension 4D entails a project schedule and timeline under it. This layer controls the project construction thoroughly when abided strictly. This provides forward project planning to increase the workflow quality at the building site. Being mindful of the time also assists in building better collaborations and cooperation with the stakeholders. The 4D sets the date of deadlines for each phase or activity of the project. The biggest benefit of employing the 4th dimension is avoiding unnecessary delays in the project.

5D Dimension

The next most important step in gauging the extent of requirements of a project is done through the 5D dimension- Cost and Estimation. This model is responsible for predicting the flow of finance and quantities concerning the project. This feature brings out accuracy throughout the process. A major difference between the mundane traditional excel sheet to this model is the ease at which it can be modified and updated from time to time in sync with the real-time changes in the project. It provides an exact budget estimate with a detailed breakdown of each aspect, thus increasing transparency. The exactness stems from the predictability of the model which lessens human error and cut down budget elements. 

6D Dimension

The most trending and essential aspect of designing includes Sustainability which is this dimension all about. It's optimizing the project management from scratch to the final product while being mindful of the environment and its lifecycle. The model keeps analysing the energy consumption of the building to estimate the energy requirements at every stage. It helps ensure better performance of the project with fast feedback and impact on the building operations. 

7D Dimension

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7D helps in taking care of future maintenance-related decision-making fast and easy. This model brings a detailed analysis of the operational aspects of the project which further affects the economics of running that project. 7D is facility management building information. It includes necessary details for any recurring maintenance required and keeping tabs on previous repairs or improvements made through the project lifecycle. 

Surprise! There is one more Dimension to BIM to be considered.

8D Dimension

One most crucial point to mind through the construction of a building is Safety on the site to prevent any unforeseen hazard. The 8D model includes an analysis of risky areas of the projects thus raising the need for appropriate safety measures like fencing, more scaffolding, signage and machinery. Virtual reality technology makes this a possibility. BIM verifies site conditions more precisely thus helping establish better communication and training of the labour force at the site. 


To completely understand a construction project, acquaint well with each of the BIM Dimensions and understand how they work together to enhance the construction model. The optimization goal is to help deliver the project on time under a cost-effective budget and maintain the project through the lifecycle. This is only possible with a streamlined flow of information- BIM is the answer. 

Check out the Infurnia website on how it is the holistic cloud BIM software inclusive of each BIM dimension. 

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